1. Two types of enzymes are:-
Simple enzyme- Made up of only protein. Ex.- Urease, Amylase, Trypsin, Pepsin
Conjugated enzyme- Made up of protein and non protein part. Non protein part is called cofactor, Protein part is called Apoenzyme. Both Combinely called Holoenzyme.
2. Three types of Co factors
Co-enzyme - Loosely attached with Apoenzyme. Mostly vitamins acts as co-enzymes in protoplasm:-
- Co enzyme A - Pentathenic acid – Derivative of vit. .
- Co enzyme I - NAD = Nicotenic acid or Niacin = Nicothinamide adenine di nucleotide or DPN (Diphospho pyridine Nucelotide).
- Co enzyme II - NADP (Nicotinamide di adenine nucleotide phosphate) = TPN (Triphospho pyridine nucleotide) – Derivative of vitamin .
- FAD : (Derivative of Riboflavin and vitamin ). Above mention CoA helps in oxidation reaction.
- Pyridozal phosphate : (Vitamin ) it helps in amino acids metabolism.
- Co enzyme R - Biotin or Vitamin H – It helps in fat metabolism.
- Co enzyme - F - Folic acid – It works as a CoA in DNA synthesis and maturation of RBC.
Prosthetic group - Firmly attached to the cofactor (organic and inorganic both). E.g.- Haem in cytochrome oxidase.
Metal activator - Loosely attached inorganic cofactor
|2.||Kinase, Dehydrogenase, Enolase|
|4.||Carbonic anhydrase lactic dehydrogenase|
|5.||Ascorbic acid synthetase cytocrome oxidase, Tyrosinase, RUDP-Carboxylase.|
|6.||Mo||Nitrogenase, Xanthino oxidase|
3. Zymogens or Proenzymes
Precursor are originator of enzymes are known as zymogens.
Term given by Market and Moller. Enzymes acts upon same substrate but they have different -2 molecular forms.
- - Amylase - has 16 forms and found in endosperm of wheat
- Lactic dehydrogenase- have 5 forms
- Creative kinase - Have three forms