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Class-XII/MEDICAL /Botany /Biomolecules /Enzyme /Introduction

1. Two types of enzymes are:-

  1. Simple enzyme- Made up of only protein. Ex.- Urease, Amylase, Trypsin, Pepsin

  2. Conjugated enzyme- Made up of protein and non protein part. Non protein part is called cofactor, Protein part is called Apoenzyme. Both Combinely called Holoenzyme.

2. Three types of Co factors

  1. Co-enzyme - Loosely attached with Apoenzyme. Mostly vitamins acts as co-enzymes in protoplasm:-

    1. Co enzyme A - Pentathenic acid – Derivative of vit. .
    2. Co enzyme I - NAD = Nicotenic acid or Niacin = Nicothinamide adenine di nucleotide or DPN (Diphospho pyridine Nucelotide).
    3. Co enzyme II - NADP (Nicotinamide di adenine nucleotide phosphate) = TPN (Triphospho pyridine nucleotide) – Derivative of vitamin .
    4. FAD : (Derivative of Riboflavin and vitamin ). Above mention CoA helps in oxidation reaction.
    5. Pyridozal phosphate : (Vitamin ) it helps in amino acids metabolism.
    6. Co enzyme R - Biotin or Vitamin H – It helps in fat metabolism.
    7. Co enzyme - F - Folic acid – It works as a CoA in DNA synthesis and maturation of RBC.
  2. Prosthetic group - Firmly attached to the cofactor (organic and inorganic both). E.g.- Haem in cytochrome oxidase.

  3. Metal activator - Loosely attached inorganic cofactor

S.No. Enzyme Metal Activator
1. Aconitase enzyme
2. Kinase, Dehydrogenase, Enolase
3. Peroxidase enzyme
4. Carbonic anhydrase lactic dehydrogenase
5. Ascorbic acid synthetase cytocrome oxidase, Tyrosinase, RUDP-Carboxylase.
6. Mo Nitrogenase, Xanthino oxidase

3. Zymogens or Proenzymes

Precursor are originator of enzymes are known as zymogens.

Example :

  1. Pepsinogen Pepsin

  2. Prorennin Rennin

  3. Trypsinogen Trypsin

  4. Chymotrypsinogen Chymotrypsin

4. Isoenzymes

Term given by Market and Moller. Enzymes acts upon same substrate but they have different -2 molecular forms.

Example :

  1. - Amylase - has 16 forms and found in endosperm of wheat
  2. Lactic dehydrogenase- have 5 forms
  3. Creative kinase - Have three forms

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